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Due to the design of cohort studies, and since temporal sequence is present, both incidence rate and cumulative incidence can be calculated [2, 8, 20, 21, 22].
Cohort studies are classified under the non-experimental type of studies , which are observational by default .
A cohort study follows people as groups, two or more, from exposure to outcome [2, 8].
In the field of epidemiology, Frost was the first to introduce the term “cohort study” back in 1935 .
Cohort refers to a group of individuals that share a common factor or a defining characteristic [4, 5], or in other words, cohort is a certain component of a specific population that can be measured and followed throughout time .
Furthermore, they allow for the study of multiple outcomes that can be associated with a single type of exposure [2, 20] or multiple exposures .
Additionally, they allow for the study of rare exposures [2, 18, 20].
In the second we focus on the design of cohort studies, mainly its prospective aspect, and the distinguishing features from the retrospective type.
The section also covers the essential characteristics of a cohort study design and its varied applications in medical research.
Prospective investigation is required to make precise estimates of either the incidence of an outcome or the relative risk of an outcome based on exposure.
Cohort studies are the analytical design of observational studies that are epidemiologically used to identify and quantify the relationship between exposure and outcome.