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2) Also, an assignment operator also returns the value that was assigned (the copy constructor has no return). In the statement: The first operation is (c = 4), and this operation returns the assigned value (4), so that the result can be used as an operand in the next assignment (b = 4).This value should be returned by reference when overloading for objects.
1) The copy constructor is initializing a brand new object as a copy of an existing one.
The new object's data is being initialized for the first time.
This is sufficient for many cases, but not for ALL cases.
Example: This fraction object has a numerator of 3 and a denominator of 4.
To return the object, we need to be able to refer to an object from inside the object itself.
From inside any member function, an object has access to its own address through a pointer called ) Like the copy constructor, the original object needs to be passed in, so there will be one parameter (of the same type as the object itself).
So, a copy constructor always has one parameter, which is of the same type as the class itself.
It is always passed by reference, as well (it has to be -- since to pass by value, we must invoke a copy constructor, and this is what we are defining!
These functions include: The automatic versions of the constructor and destructor don't do anything, but they will be there if you do not build them.
(The constructor you get is the "default constructor" -- no parameters -- and this is automatically built if you don't define any constructor besides the cop constructor).