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This lack of supportive evidence suggests the subluxation construct has no valid clinical applicability.
The conclusions of this review are also backed up by another major review, the “Bronfort report” on the effectiveness of mannual therapies: Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans R, Leininger B, Triano J. This review of all manual therapies focusses mainly on spinal manipulative therapy and massage therapy for low back and neck pain, with underwhelming results: both are “effective” in some circumstances but certainly not impressively so, and generally no different from other therapies that help a little but haven’t exactly put a dent in the epidemic.
This meta-analysis supports the most critical view: the authors concluded that “SMT is no more effective in participants with acute low-back pain” than shams and placebos.
Despite this, the rest of their conclusions seem crafted to prolong the controversy.
Upper cervical chiropractors focus on the atlas, the top cervical vertebra.
In over a century, chiropractic research has produced no evidence to support the postulates of chiropractic theory and little evidence that chiropractic treatments provide objective benefits.