For example, taking more or fewer pills per dose or day, not using the drug the full time course as prescribed (e.g., antibiotics), using the drug past the expiration date, using the drug with other drugs (e.g., alcohol with barbiturates), or sharing prescriptions with others without a doctor’s permission are all forms of drug misuse.
Misuse generally refers to the deviation from instructions on the label of over-the-counter drugs or the doctor’s instructions for prescription drugs.
Psychoactive drugs work in the brain primarily by affecting neurotransmitter activity at the synapses.
Neurons produce neurotransmitters that are stored in vesicles within the terminal buttons.
Rates of absorption via other routes of administration are somewhere between those of inhalation and oral administration, depending somewhat on the availability of capillaries at the site of administration.
Users of psychoactive drugs choose their favorite drug partially because of how quickly the drug exerts its psychoactive effects.Subsequent to metabolism and recirculation in the blood, the kidneys excrete the more water-soluble metabolites from the body in urine, although there is excretion of small amounts of the drugs and their metabolites in exhaled breath, sweat, saliva, feces, and breast milk.Not surprisingly, urine drug tests are frequently used to determine the presence of metabolites some time after the metabolism of the original drug, rather than the presence of the original drug at time of administration. Bibliography A drug is a chemical substance produced exogenously (outside of the body) that, when taken into the body, changes normal body functions.Inhalation results in fast absorption into the bloodstream because gases and drugs in smoke (e.g., nicotine) are readily absorbed into the intricate network of capillaries that line the large surface area of the elaborately pocketed lungs.For example, heroin is the preferred drug for some opiate addicts because it is more lipid soluble, is absorbed into the brain faster, and produces a faster, more intense “rush” than morphine does.Before drugs can stop working in the body, they must be either broken down into other substances (metabolized) or removed from the body (excreted). Most of the information about how drugs make a person feel come from self-reports of licit and illicit users of drugs, whereas most of the data about how the body affects drugs and how drugs work in the brain comes from well-controlled experimental studies using nonhuman animals. An adult drinking alcohol to relax or smoking cigarettes to stop the jitters are examples of recreational use of licit (legal) drugs in this country, and smoking crack to feel euphoric or injecting heroin for the “rush” are examples of illicit (illegal) recreational drug use.Also check our tips on how to write a research paper, see the lists of psychology research paper topics, and browse research paper examples. Provided the psychoactive drugs administered directly into the bloodstream can pass the BBB, they will reach their CNS sites of action relatively quickly. Pharmacokinetics is the study of how drugs are absorbed into the body, metabolized once in the body, and excreted from the body. Intraperitoneal (into the peritoneal cavity), intraventricular (via a cannula into the ventricles of the brain), and intracranial (directly into a target area of the brain) injections are forms of administration used mostly in research with laboratory animals.