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The motivation for behavior may also be attributed to less- apparent reasons such as altruism or morality.Motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of human behavior.The role of facilitating quality subordinate-superior communication at various levels effectively employing a wide range of communication channels has been praised by Shields (2007) in terms of its positive contribution in boosting employee morale.
Furthermore, Wylie (2004) recommends concentrating on specific variations of intangible motivational tools such as celebrations of birthdays and other important dates with the participation of whole team According to Thomas (2009) the main challenge of motivation in workplaces is identifying what motivates each individual employee taking into account his or her individual differences.
In other words, individual differences have been specified by Thomas (2009) as the major obstruction for management in engaging in employee motivation in an effective manner.
Chapter-2 Review of literature Motivation: Motivation is the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior as studied in economics, psychology and neuropsychology.
These reasons may include basic needs such as food or desired object, hobbies, goal, state of being or ideal.
The individual has the desire to perform a specific task, because its results are in accordance with his belief system or fulfills a desire and therefore importance is attached to it.
Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational stimuli is coming from outside.An interesting viewpoint regarding the issue has been proposed by Wylie (2004), according to which members of management primarily should be able to maintain the level of their own motivation at high levels in order to engage in effective motivation of their subordinates.Accordingly, Wylie (2004) recommends managers to adopt a proactive approach in terms of engaging in self-motivation practices.Specifically, Llopis (2012) reasons that unless employees achieve an adequate level of work-life balance in personal level, management investment on the level of employee motivation can be wasted. (2007) “Managing Employee Performance and Reward: Concepts, Practices, Strategies” Oxford University Press Thomas, K. This viewpoint is based on Hierarchy of Needs theoretical framework proposed by Abraham Maslow (1943), according to which there is a certain hierarchy for individual needs, and more basic human needs need to be satisfied in order for the next level needs to serve as motivators. The motivation for behavior may also be attributed to less- apparent reasons such as altruism or morality. Porter proposed that “how behavior gets started, is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organization while all this is going on” Greenberg & Baron define motivation as, “The set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behavior towards attaining some goal.” Halepota defines motivation as “a person’s active participation and commitment to achieve the prescribed results.” Steers proposed that “Never before and, some would argue, never since has so much progress been made in explicating the aetiology of work motivation” Young suggested that “motivation can be defined in a variety of ways, depending on who you ask . ...stablish the emotional connect to the cause of the role are likely to get more productivity. Challenge them When you challenge people, they respond with a vengeance.Motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of human behavior. Ask some one on the street, you may get a response like “its what drives us” or “its what make us do the things we do.” Therefore motivation is the force within an individual that account for the level, directio... Ask people for better customer serving ideas, improving processes in manufacturing companies or even how to increase their day-to-day response time.The second view was based on Hawthorn findings, which held the view that employees are motivated to work well for “its own sake” as well as for the social and monetary benefits this type of motivation was internally motivated.” Pinder described work motivation as “the set of internal and external forces that initiate work-related behavior, and determine its form, direction, intensity and duration”.Types of Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational stimuli are coming from within.In other words, our desires to perform a task are controlled by an outside source.Bruce and Pepitone (1999) propose an interesting viewpoint according to which managers cannot motivate employees; managers can only influence what employees are motivated to do.