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The risk from sharing a needle during drug injection is between 0.63 and 2.4% per act, with an average of 0.8%.
The latter trend has been largely due to improved access to treatment for the afflicted.
Thus, there has been an increase in the overall number of people living with AIDS.
The virus had been isolated the year before by a team of French researchers led by virologist Luc Montagnier.
Montagnier and his colleagues identified the virus as a new type of human retrovirus, and they suspected that it was the cause of AIDS.
Lentiviruses share many morphological and biological characteristics.
Many species of mammals are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period.Another group consists of those who maintain a low or undetectable viral load without anti-retroviral treatment, known as "elite controllers" or "elite suppressors".They represent approximately 1 in 300 infected persons.Access to antiretroviral treatment for AIDS remains limited in some areas of the world, although more people are receiving treatment today than in the past.As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of developing common infections such as tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have uncompromised immune systems.Since 1981 about 35 million people have died from HIV infection.In the early 21st century, however, the annual number of new infections began to decrease, and since about 2005 the annual number of AIDS-related deaths globally has also declined.Preventive treatment involves the mother taking antiretrovirals during pregnancy and delivery, an elective caesarean section, avoiding breastfeeding, and administering antiretroviral drugs to the newborn.If a woman is untreated, two years of breastfeeding results in an HIV/AIDS risk in her baby of about 17%. Due to the increased risk of death without breastfeeding in many areas in the developing world, the World Health Organization recommends either: (1) the mother and baby being treated with antiretroviral medication while breastfeeding being continued (2) the provision of safe formula.Gallo helped establish that HIV caused AIDS, and he contributed to the subsequent development of a blood test for its detection.Montagnier initially called the new infectious agent lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV), but in 1986 the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses renamed it HIV.