Francis Fukuyama Thesis

Francis Fukuyama Thesis-25
Fukuyama was surprisingly non-dogmatic on this point.He acknowledged that some states and peoples might remain to reject a liberal democratic model of political organization and would strive to exist outside the globalizing power of the market.During these deca­des the peripheral economies grew fast, increasing the demand for U. techno­lo­gies and software and supplying the Wes­tern nations with affordable industrial goods, thus improving the quality of life in the global North.

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But at the same time, 97.98 percent of all the smartphones in the world run either on Windows, Android or i OS operating systems (if all the computer and compu­ter-like devices are counted, the share of either Microsoft, Google or Apple software comes to none­theless impressive 95.93 percent). S.-based Facebook, You Tube, Whats App, and In­stagram account for 8.12 billion users while the Chinese or Chinese-oriented QQ, Douyin and Sina Weibo for just 1.67 billion.

Of close to three hundred billion emails traded in the world daily, up to 92 percent are received by email boxes registered with the U. “retreat” looks a bit qu­es­tio­nable in the world where in 2007, Petro China became the first trillion-dollar company by market value and in 2008, Russia’s Gazprom advanced to the fourth position in the list of world’s most valuable companies.

1989 was not only the year when the Central European nations revol­ted against com­munism, but it was the year when Japan suffered its biggest ever financial debacle and the Soviet Union started its economic decline; both de­velopments deprived the world of two economic powerhouses the United States was aware of for several decades.

The scenarios of Japan becoming number one were forgotten and gave way to the idea that the United States entered the era of “unlimited wealth.” The major difference between the post-historical economy that emerged in the 1990s compared with the traditional industrial economies of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was the new type of cooperation between major economic areas.

Previously the nations that tried to “catch up” actually used the same technologies as the others, but in a more effective way; this explains why their economic rivalry on­ly reinforced the political one.

The fight for the markets excluded compromises simply because the entire game was a zero-sum one: if someone’s share rose, the other’s decreased.If one looks on the global economy, then one should admit it has changed from 1989 to 2019 much more than global politics has.While the political rivalry actually never disappeared entirely, and nations like Russia never became liberal democracies, the “end of economic history” could be easily recorded.Both Intel and AMD lead the development of new generation chips while the mass manufacturing of these devices has been relocated to Asia—where many companies like SK Hynix of South Korea or TSMC and UMC of Taiwan position themselves as the competitors of American firms but depend on them for the most vital technologies used.In 2018, more than 65 percent of all smart­phones pro­duced in the world were manufactured in China—and among these 78 percent were built by “genuine” Chinese brands, from Huawei and Xiaomi to OPPO and Vivo.Selling its software, the Western powers didn’t sell the know­ledge embodied in the original program, they sold just the copies which could be reproduced in any additional quantity at zero cost.At the sa­me time, the newly emerged economies in Asia used the American technologies to create the sophisticated hardware producing these goods in increasing amo­unts therefore establishing themselves as “ultimate industrial societies.” This new configuration was perfectly post-historical in Fukuyama’s sense.With the cessation of the struggle against the Soviet Union and its allies, a new era of neoliberal prosperity, respect for international human rights law, and general peace were to characterize the global order as humanity moved into the 21Fukuyama argued that with the end of the Cold War and the collapse of Marxism as a viable alternative, liberal-democracy and free-market capitalism had proven themselves the only viable model for a political-economic organization.This implied it would increasingly be embraced by states and peoples across the globe, who would be eager to be on the right side of the historical dialectic while also not having any real alternative model available to them.As the informati­on technology domain is considered, the history of war and conflict seemed to firmly end there for all the years that passed after Fukuyama outlined his famo­us hypothesis.anniversary of the end of the Cold War, it is easy to get nostalgic for the comparative optimism and even triumphalism that pervaded Western societies.


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