Mrsa Research Papers

Mrsa Research Papers-46
These factors and a number of other characteristics help to explain why this organism has thrived and spread throughout the world in the 50 years since its first identification, despite the efforts to defeat it by some of the best and most brilliant medical minds in the world.

These factors and a number of other characteristics help to explain why this organism has thrived and spread throughout the world in the 50 years since its first identification, despite the efforts to defeat it by some of the best and most brilliant medical minds in the world.

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There are also anecdotal reports of the spread of CA-MRSA from horses, dogs, cats and guinea pigs to humans, but such occurrences are rare and not nearly as important as direct human-to-human spread in the dissemination of these organisms.

Moreover, it is difficult to determine from the information available whether there is a greater likelihood that these animals serve as a true reservoir for the spread of CA-MRSA or whether they are merely sophisticated ‘fomites’.

Nonetheless, it is clear that CA-MRSA are easily spread by direct contact and via contaminated fomites.

that are primarily found in animals, not humans, and that these genes have spread to human pathogens from that source.

The low prevalence of MRSA infections in Finland, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Sweden and the Netherlands has been thought to be due to major ‘search and destroy’ operations in these countries.

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Nonetheless, MRSA continue to cause significant problems in Europe.When subjected to formal testing, many agents used by ancient civilizations to treat wounds, including copper salts such as malachite and chrysocolla, and honey and myrrh, have been shown to have definite activity against staphylococci leading to a search for β-lactamase-resistant agents.This search resulted in the synthesis of the semisynthetic antistaphylococcal penicillins, beginning with methicillin and including other derivatives such as oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, flucloxacillin and nafcillin.The prevalence of infections caused by HA-MRSA shows considerable geographical variation, which, at least in part, has been related to efforts to decrease the colonization and spread of these organisms.In Europe, for example, the prevalence of MRSA has historically increased from north to south (the UK being an exception).Data from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS), now known as the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARSnet), documented that more than 25% of bacteraemias in central and southern European countries were due to MRSA in 1999.By 2008 efforts to decrease these infections had shown some success, especially in the UK, where the percentage of MRSA in bloodstream infections decreased from 31% in 2007 to 19.3% in 2009, perhaps related to government action making the reporting of MRSA bacteraemia mandatory and setting a target of decreasing rates of infection by 50%.In the ensuing half century these organisms have spread throughout the world and although we have learned a great deal about them we have been totally unable to eradicate them or to consistently prevent the serious infections they continue to cause.has many characteristics that help to account for its remarkable success as a human pathogen.Vancomycin was also discovered in the 1950s, but was not widely used as the penicillins were considered safer and possibly more effective., which is largely due to β-lactamase production, methicillin resistance is due to the acquisition of genes encoding a unique penicillin-binding protein, designated 2′ or 2a, that has decreased affinity for β-lactams and catalyses effective cell wall synthesis even in the presence of penicillins, including antistaphylococcal penicillins, as well as cephalosporins and carbapenems. Unlike the penicillin-binding proteins in pneumococci, which are mosaic genes consisting of native DNA and DNA from naturally penicillin-resistant streptococci acquired through transformation, the because they were of no advantage to the organism in an environment devoid of β-lactam pressure.Since their initial description in 1961, a number of clones of MRSA have spread widely throughout the world.

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