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Large-scale clinical trials performed in the Soviet Union in late 1950s to early 1960s by Mikhail Chumakov and his colleagues demonstrated safety and high efficacy of the vaccine.Fifty-seven nucleotide substitutions distinguish the attenuated Sabin 1 strain from its virulent parent (the Mahoney serotype), two nucleotide substitutions attenuate the Sabin 2 strain, and 10 substitutions are involved in attenuating the Sabin 3 strain.They are generally safe to give during pregnancy and in those who have HIV/AIDS, but are otherwise well.
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and survival of the virus in the environment for an extended period of time appears to be remote.
OPV produces excellent immunity in the intestine, the primary site of wild poliovirus entry, which helps prevent infection with wild virus in areas where the virus is endemic.
The live virus used in the vaccine can rarely shed in the stool and can rarely spread to others within a community.
Recent local opposition to vaccination campaigns have evolved due to lack of adequate information, The disease has since resurged in Nigeria and in several other African nations without necessary information, which epidemiologists believe is due to refusals by certain local populations to allow their children to receive the polio vaccine.