Polio Vaccine Essay

Polio Vaccine Essay-8
Large-scale clinical trials performed in the Soviet Union in late 1950s to early 1960s by Mikhail Chumakov and his colleagues demonstrated safety and high efficacy of the vaccine.Fifty-seven nucleotide substitutions distinguish the attenuated Sabin 1 strain from its virulent parent (the Mahoney serotype), two nucleotide substitutions attenuate the Sabin 2 strain, and 10 substitutions are involved in attenuating the Sabin 3 strain.They are generally safe to give during pregnancy and in those who have HIV/AIDS, but are otherwise well.

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and survival of the virus in the environment for an extended period of time appears to be remote.

OPV produces excellent immunity in the intestine, the primary site of wild poliovirus entry, which helps prevent infection with wild virus in areas where the virus is endemic.

The live virus used in the vaccine can rarely shed in the stool and can rarely spread to others within a community.

Recent local opposition to vaccination campaigns have evolved due to lack of adequate information, The disease has since resurged in Nigeria and in several other African nations without necessary information, which epidemiologists believe is due to refusals by certain local populations to allow their children to receive the polio vaccine.

The Salk vaccine, IPV, is based on three wild, virulent reference strains, Mahoney (type 1 poliovirus), MEF-1 (type 2 poliovirus), and Saukett (type 3 poliovirus), grown in a type of monkey kidney tissue culture (Vero cell line), which are then inactivated with formalin.The published findings from the study revealed no increased incidence of cancer in persons who may have received vaccine containing SV40.Another large study in Sweden examined cancer rates of 700,000 individuals who had received potentially contaminated polio vaccine as late as 1957; the study again revealed no increased cancer incidence between persons who received polio vaccines containing SV40 and those who did not.These hypotheses, however, have been conclusively refuted.By 2004, cases of poliomyelitis in Africa had been reduced to just a small number of isolated regions in the western portion of the continent, with sporadic cases elsewhere.Aeon email newsletters are issued by the not-for-profit, registered charity Aeon Media Group Ltd (Australian Business Number 80 612 076 614).This Email Newsletter Privacy Statement pertains to the personally identifying information you voluntarily submit in the form of your email address to receive our email newsletters More generally, when visiting the Aeon site you should refer to our site Privacy Policy here.When the current formulation of IPV is used, 90% or more of individuals develop protective antibodies to all three serotypes of polio virus after two doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), and at least 99% are immune to polio virus following three doses.The duration of immunity induced by IPV is not known with certainty, although a complete series is thought to provide protection for many years.By 1958, the National Institutes of Health had determined that OPV produced using the Sabin strains were the safest.Between 19, however, Hilary Koprowski continued to administer his vaccine around the world.

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