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If religion holds political authority, its ambition is to exploit it to fulfill a divine mission.It claims that it derives authority from divinity and therefore its mission is holy, motivated to reform society under the spiritual guidance.On this plea it persists to retain its old structure without any addition.
It removed business hurdles and the merchant and industrial classes flourished. The Abbasid period In the Islamic history, conflict between religion and politics settled after the Abbasid revolution (750. D.) when the Iranians, who made the revolution a success and subsequently assumed position of power and authority in the government administration, formulated the state policy of their liking.
They wanted to make the Abbasid Caliph just like the Persian monarch having absolute political power with religious authority: a combination of temporal and spiritual powers.
There are three models in history related to religion and politics.
The study of beginning and spread of any religion shows that every religion is started in particular space and time; therefore, main focus of its teachings is the solution of existing problems.
Religion mobilizes religious sensibilities of people in order to get their support to capture power; while politics uses intrigue, diplomacy, and makes attempt to win public opinion either democratically, if the system allows it, or usurps power with the help of army, if the society is under-developed and backward.
Therefore, in power struggle, both politics and religion make attempts to undermine each other.
However, it was settled that in practice the caliph would remain absolute in administrative and political matters but he would not interfere in the affairs of the shariat nor would make any effort to change it. It is how religion and politics separated with each other in the early stage of Islamic history.
As a result of this settlement, a system emerged in which the ruler had unlimited power.
The Iranian bureaucracy was opposed by ulema who strove to curtail the power of the caliph in view of the shariat (religious laws).
As the Iranians had political and military support, they cornered ulema in their efforts and made the caliph a Persian king along with all royal symbols and rituals which once prevailed at the Sassanid court.