Management Capabilities and Performance of Firms in the Russian Federation (English) Using the management and operational practices survey in the Russian Federation, this paper finds that an average Russian manufacturing firm adopts 43 percent of the structured management practices (a score of 0.43), a value that is far from the frontier (for example, the United States scores 0.62).
This average mask the wide heterogeneity in practices, where a large share of firms adopt few structured management practices and only 3.5 percent of them have a score over 0.75.
See Less - Twenty Years of Wage Inequality in Latin America (English) This paper documents an inverse U-shape in the evolution of wage inequality in Latin America since 1995, with a sharp reduction starting in 2002.
The Gini coefficient of wages increased from 42 to 44 between 19 and declined to 39 by 2015.
Changes in the sectoral, occupational, and formal-informal composition of jobs matter for the process of reduction in inequality, but do not fully account for the fall in within-skill variance.
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3781
Evidence using longitudinal matched employer-employee administrative data suggests that an important driver was falling wage dispersion across firms.To get debt down to prudent levels, Albania and Montenegro will need a strong commitment to complying with their fiscal rules and will often have to do more than their deficit rules require.The following principles should guide future policy toward fiscal rules: more emphasis should be given to ensuring that fiscal rules are widely understood and enjoy the support of a broad range of stakeholders; policy toward the rules should be consistent with accession to the European Union, but the rules should be simpler than the European Union's and the debt limits lower; limits in rules should not be mistaken for targets; and public financial management should be improved to support the implementation of rules.See Less - Manufacturing in Structural Change in Africa (English) This paper investigates the scale, causes, and timing of significant episodes of industrialization and deindustrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa.Recent studies have argued that the turning point of manufacturing output and employment shares tends to occur prematurely in this region.RUSMOD combines household survey micro-data and fiscal policy rules to simulate the Russian tax-benefit system: the size and distribution of taxes collected and benefits paid, and the impact of the system on different population groups.Microsimulation models, such as RUSMOD, are habitually used in developed countries, and can be versatile budgetary policy tools.This result points to the possibility of inefficient allocation of resources, such that learning and selection mechanism does not weed out the badly managed firms, perhaps due to the lack of pro-competitive forces.See Less - RUSMOD -- A Tool for Distributional Analysis in the Russian Federation (English) The purpose of this paper is to introduce applications of RUSMOD -- a microsimulation model for fiscal incidence analysis in the Russian Federation.Between 20, the 90/10 log hourly earnings ratio decreased by 26 percent.The decline since 2002 was characterized by rising wages across the board, but especially among those at the bottom of the wage distribution in each country.